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College of Natural and Applied Sciences
Paul Richardson
Associate Professor of Biochemistry

Department(s): Chemistry & Physics
Degree(s): MS in Medical Immunology and Molecular Biology . PhD in Biochemistry
Area of Study: Biochemistry, Protein Structure, Infectious Diseases with a focus on Virology
Curriculum Vitae: View Document
   
Email: prichar@coastal.edu
Office: Swain 211
Phone: 843-349-2598
Website: http://professorrichardsonresearch.wordpress.com
   
Biography:
Dr Richardson's Bio

Paul E. Richardson grew up in Maine and graduated from Morse High School in 1992. He graduated in 1996 with a B.S. in Biochemistry from Lebanon Valley College. After college he worked for Bayer pharmaceuticals testing drugs. After that he went to the University of Southern Maine and got a M.S. in Medical Immunology and Molecular Biology in 1999, his thesis focused on apoptotic factors in Murine Herpesvirus. For this thesis work he was awarded the outstanding graduate student for the University of Southern Maine. After his Master’s degree he went to the University of Alabama, Birmingham PhD program in Biochemistry. In 2003 he followed his mentor to Georgia Tech. In 2004 Paul finished his PhD thesis (PhD in Biochemistry from UAB) that focused on structural modeling of proteins involved in diseases. In 2004 he took an assistant professor position at Coastal Carolina University. In 2009 he was awarded the outstanding alumni researcher in Applied Medical Sciences from the University of Southern Maine. In 2010 he got promoted to associate professor of biochemistry. In 2012 he received the Harry M. Lightsey Jr. Visiting Scholar award for his research on environmental indicators for bacteriophages in estuaries.


Dr Richardson's Research Focus

Dr Richardson’s research is focused at looking at novel means to prevent/inhibit bacterial infections/blooms in the environment or people. Currently there are three research projects in his laboratory. The bacteriophage project is trying to isolate and identify naturally occurring bacteriophages in our community that could be used to treat bacterial skin infections. The unnatural amino acids project it trying to determine the effectiveness of d-amino acids in inhibiting bacterial infections. The environmental bacteriophage project wants to isolate and purify naturally occurring bacteriophages in our marine estuaries to study their ability to control bacterial blooms and ecological diversity.

Humanity is besieged with the constant onslaught of bacteria and viruses on a daily basis, and we are slowly falling behind in this battle. Over the past few months outbreaks of salmonella have bedeviled our food supply, hospitals are constantly plagued with Staphylococcus infections that are resistant to antibiotics, and in one national park over 10,000 people were potentially infected by hantavirus. New weapons are needed in the fight to help inhibit and prevent these infections. Our research is focused at looking at novel means to prevent/inhibit bacterial infections/blooms in our community. The bacteriophage project is trying to isolate and identify naturally occurring bacteriophages in our community that could be used to treat bacterial skin infections. The unnatural amino acids project it trying to determine the effectiveness of d-amino acids in inhibiting bacterial infections of the skin and bacteria that cause food poisoning. The environmental bacteriophage project wants to isolate and purify bacteriophages in our marine estuaries to study their ability to control bacterial blooms.


Bacteriophages
Staphylococcus aureus is a very common pathogenic bacterium in the human population. Recently some strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to antibiotic drugs. It is imperative to human health that treatments are developed that can destroy the bacteria even after it mutates and bacteriophages are a promising approach. Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria and are specific to the particular bacteria they infect. These bacteriophages are naturally occurring in the population and are harmless to the human host they populate, often being beneficial in their ability to control microbial populations. Unlike static drugs, bacteriophages can evolve with the bacteria to constantly keep up with the mutating pathogens. The purpose of this project is to address two questions about these naturally occurring bacteriophages; does the general population contain bacteriophages that are lytic against Staphylococcus aureus and can we isolate and identify these bacteriophages based on genomic fingerprinting and polymerase chain reaction?
Student researchers (Amy Powers and Derek Pride)

Unnatural Amino Acids
Unnatural Amino Acids project looks at the use of d-amino acids to suppress bacterial and viral infections. d-amino acids are very rare, as the majority of amino acids are in the left-handed configuration (l-amino acids). The d and l prefix explains the conformation of the amino acid. Chemically they are similar, but their structures are mirror images of each other (look at your hands to get an idea). For a reason that is not fully understood, nature has selected the l configuration for amino acids, and almost every amino acid is in that confirmation (similar to the fact that most people are right handed). Because the confirmation is not complementary d-amino acids are not naturally incorporated into proteins, and if they are, the protein is often non-functional. If a protein is non-functional it could lead to the destruction or inhibition of pathogen growth. This project will look at d-amino acids’ (lysine, arginine, glutamic acid, methionine, isoleucine, and leucine) ability to inhibit growth of six genera of bacteria (Escherichia, Salmonella, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Vibrio, and Staphylococcus) and three strains of viruses (T2, T4, and X174). Salmonella and Escherichia are common bacteria that cause food poisoning on fruits and meats. Streptococcus is the bacterium responsible for strep throat, common with any child in elementary school. Staphylococcus is a common bacterium found on skin that can sometimes cause dangerous skin infections known as the flesh-eating bacteria. The other two bacteria were selected because they can serve as a model organism for other pathogenic bacteria too dangerous to handle in the lab.
Student researchers (Jordan Wesel and Riane Petersman)

Environmental Bacteriophage
This project is in the beginning phases where techniques for detection are currently being investigated. The first stage is to evaluate whether the properties of seawater (salinity, pH and dissolved oxygen content) effect the sensitivity of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) used to identify bacteriophages in water samples from environmental samples (real world conditions). The effect of the different water characteristics on the sensitivity of the PCR identification of virus particles will be analyzed to determine what sensitivity levels bacteriophage can be detected in these environmental samples with respect to each water property. This will allow a detection threshold to be determined on environmental samples and further test the sensitivity of the protocols developed. Also, this study will look at the effect seawater (salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen content) has on bacteriophage levels in an estuary. As detailed bacteriophage counting will be done during the study to help determine sensitivity, this data will be valuable in measuring bacteriophage counts. This will also be tied into weather and temperature data collected. This project is currently being funded by a grant from Hobcaw Barnoy.
Student researcher (Joe Cannon)

Molecular Phage work
This project works with the environmental phage and bacteriophage projects above and is not truly its own project. These students work on Polymerase Chain Reaction tests to detect the many different phages in different environmental conditions. They are also working on isolating viral DNA and generating a genomic fingerprint to help characterize the different bacteriophages collected from the other projects.
Student Researchers (Nick Thurn, Josh Cooper, and Jakob Martin)


::::::::SCIENTIFIC PAPERS::::::::

Flood C, Gustafsson M, Richardson PE, Harvey SC, Segrest JP, Boren J.. Identification of the Proteoglycan Binding Site in Apolipoprotein B48. 2002 J Biol Chem Oct. 277(35):32228-32233

Manchekar M, Richardson PE, Forte TM, Datta G, Segrest JP, Dashti N. 2004. Apolipoprotein B-containing Lipoprotein Particle Assembly: Lipid capacity of the nascent lipoprotein particle. 2004. J Biol Chem Sept. 279:39757-66.

Smolenaars MM, Kasperaitis MA, Richardson PE, Rodenburg KW, Van der Horst DJ. Biosynthesis and secretion of insect lipoprotein: involvement of furin in cleavage of the insect apolipoprotein B homologue, apolipophorin-II/I. 2005. J. Lipid Res. Mar. 46(3):412-422

Richardson PE, Manchekar M, Dashti N, Jones MK, Beigneux A, Young SG, Harvey SC, Segrest JP. Assembly of lipoprotein particles containing apolipoprotein-B: structural model for the nascent lipoprotein particle. 2005. Biophys J. Apr. 88(4):2789-2800

Mears JA, Sharma MR, Gutell RR, McCook AS, Richardson PE, Caulfield TR, Agrawal RK, Harvey SC. A Structural Model for the Large Subunit of the Mammalian Mitochondrial Ribosome. 2006. J Mol Biol. Apr. 358(1):193-212

Manchekar M, Richardson PE, Sun Z, Liu Y, Segrest JP, Dashti N. Charged amino acid residues 997-1000 of human apolipoprotein B100 are critical for the initiation of lipoprotein assembly and the formation of a stable lipidated primordial particle in McA-RH7777 cells. 2008 J Mol Biol. Oct 24; 283(43):29251-65.

Galloway SE, Richardson PE, Wertz GW. Analysis of a structural homology model of the 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase domain within the vesicular stomatitis virus L protein.. 2008. Virology. Dec 5;382(1):69-82.

Liu Y, Manchekar M, Sun Z, Richardson PE, Dashti N. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein assembly in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein deficient McA-RH7777 cells. 2010. J. Lipid Res. Aug;51(8):2253-64.

Cannon, Joesph F.; Thurn, Nicholas A.; and Richardson, Paul E. (2013) "The Effects of Salinity, pH, Temperature, and Dissolved Oxygen on Sensitivity of PCR Identification of T4 Bacteriophage," Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science: Vol. 11: Iss. 2, Article 5.



:::::::::Student Research::::::::::

Margaret Danielle Maggard: Underlying Factors for Mortality Rates Caused by Hypertension in South Carolina. Big SURS (Mar. 2007)

Erin Kelly: Is our environment fighting viruses? Virus and Human Health minisymposium: Celebration of Inquiry (Feb 2009)

Kelly, Erin: Is our environment fighting viruses? 1st Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University (Feb 2009)

Erin Kelly: Is our environment fighting viruses? South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2009)

Sherri Tomlinson, Erin Kelly: UV irradiation on bacteriophage survival. South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2010).

Erin Kelly, Sherri Tomlinson: Is the cure for Staphylococcus infections right before our noses? South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2010).

Gilroy, Sean; Walling, David, “Genetic fingerprinting of T4 bacteriophage”, at the Fourth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University (March 2012).

Troutman, Ina; Petersman, Riane, “Searching for prophylatic bacteriophage that infect and lyse Staphylococcus aureus or Escherchia coli”, at the Fourth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University (March 2012).

Cannon, Joe; “The Effects of Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen on the Sensitivity of PCR”, at the Fourth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University (March 2012).

Sean Gilroy and David Walling, “Genetic fingerprinting of T4 bacteriophage”, at the South Carolina Academy of (April 2012).

Ina Troutman and Riane Petersman, “Searching for prophylatic bacteriophage that infect and lyse Staphylococcus aureus or Escherchia coli”, at the South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2012).

Joe Cannon, “The Effects of Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen on the Sensitivity of PCR”, at the South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2012).

Kayla Liland presented her research, “d-amino acid inhibitory properties on bacterial growth ”, at the South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2013).

Joe Cannon and Nick Thurn presented their research, “The Effects of Salinity, pH, Temperature, and Dissolved Oxygen on Sensitivity of PCR Identification of T4 Bacteriophage”, at the South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2013). Won Biochemistry and Chemistry Poster award!

Ina Troutman and Jordan Wesel presented their research project, “Searching for bacteriophages in the collegiate population”, at the South Carolina Academy of Science (April 2013).

Jordan Wesel and Ina Troutman presented their research project, “D-amino Acid Inhibitory Properties on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli Growth” at the Sixth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University. April 2014.

Caitlin Baker and Nick Thurn presented their research project, “Development of a DNA Fingerprinting Protocol for Differentiation between Barteriophages in Aquatic Environments” at the Sixth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University. April 2014.

Riane Petersman and Derek Pride presented their research project, “The Quest for a Bacteriophage Lytic to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli” at the Sixth Annual Undergraduate Research Competition at Coastal Carolina University. (April 2014).

Jordan Wesel and Ina Troutman presented their research project, “D-amino Acid Inhibitory Properties on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli Growth” at the South Carolina Academy of Science at Trident Technical College. (April 2014).

Derek Pride and Riane Petersman presented their research project, “The Quest for a Bacteriophage Lytic to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli” at the South Carolina Academy of Science at Trident Technical College. (April 2014).

Nick Thurn presented his research project, “Development and optimization of a PCR protocol to rapidly detect bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus aureus” at the South Carolina Academy of Science at Trident Technical College. (April 2014).

Ina Troutman and Jordan Wesel presented their research project, “D-amino Acid Inhibitory Properties on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli Growth” at the American Chemical Society Honor Reception at Claflin University. (April 2014).

Nick Thurn and Joe Cannon presented their research poster, “The Effects of Salinity, pH, Temperature, and Dissolved Oxygen on Sensitivity of PCR Identification of T4 Bacteriophage”, at the Hobcaw Barony Research Symposium (May 2014).


:::::::::Student Research Publications:::::::::

Tomlinson, Sherri "The Effect of UV Irradiation On Bacteriophage Survival". (2011) Bridges (5); 90-98.

Cannon, Joesph F.; Thurn, Nicholas A.; and Richardson, Paul E. (2013) "The Effects of Salinity, pH, Temperature, and Dissolved Oxygen on Sensitivity of PCR Identification of T4 Bacteriophage," Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science: Vol. 11: Iss. 2, Article 5.


:::::::::::::Student Magazine Publication:::::::::

Ina Troutman and Jordan Wesel had an article published entitled, “Unnatural Amino acids” in Progressions Magazine (Winter 2013).

Joe Cannon and Nick Thurn had an article published entitled, “the good virus” in Progressions Magazine (Spring 2013).

Ina Troutman and Riane Petersman had an article published entitled, “Paving the Way for Better Antibiotics” in Progressions Magazine (2012 - 2013).




:::::::::Classes Taught::::::::::::
Chem 111- Chemistry I
Chem 111L- Chemistry Lab I
Chem 301- Chemistry Workshop
Chem 351- Biochemistry I
Chem 351L- Biochemistry lab I
Chem 352- Biochemistry II
Chem 352L- Biochemistry Lab II
Chem 353- Physical Biochemistry
Chem 353L- Physical Biochemistry Lab
Chem 398- Junior Seminar
Chem 399- Biochemistry Research
Chem 499- Medical Phage Research
Chem 499- Viral drug discovery
Chem 499- Phage fingerprinting Research
Chem 499- Environmental Phage Research
Biol 411- Virology
Biol 411L- Virology Lab
Biol 511- Medical Virology
 
Office / Class Hours:
Paul Richardson
Associate Professor of Biochemistry - Chemistry & Physics
  07 AM 8 AM 9 AM 10 AM
Mon
Swain 211
07:30 AM
10:30 AM
Tue
Swain 211
07:30 AM
09:30 AM
Wed
Swain 211
07:30 AM
10:30 AM
Thu
Fri
Notes:

Class / Office Hours
Mon    Office: 07:30 AM - 10:30 AM
Tue    Office: 07:30 AM - 09:30 AM
Wed    Office: 07:30 AM - 10:30 AM